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Signs and Symptoms of Monkeypox
Creative Biolabs has decades of experience and expertise in monkeypox virus research. Our team is committed to creating innovative anti-monkeypox drug discovery solutions to accelerate the development of drugs.
Common Symptoms of Monkeypox
Begin to develop one to two weeks after an individual has been infected with the monkeypox virus. In the prodromal stage, non-specific symptoms such as fever, enlarged lymph nodes, and myalgia trigger the immune system. The initial activation of the immune system always results in enlarged lymph nodes, including the upper jaw, neck, and groin, coinciding with fever. Typically, within 1 to 3 days after fever occurs, patients develop a rash that often appears on the face first, then spreads to other parts of the body and may involve the mouth, vagina, and anus. The rash starts as a flat red spot, then hardens, fills with fluid, raised bumps, and then turns into a scab that heals over a few weeks. Common symptoms of monkeypox are fever, headache, swollen lymph nodes (in the neck, armpit, or groin), back and muscle pain, and fatigue, although not all monkeypox patients develop these flulike symptoms
Complications of Monkeypox
Gastrointestinal symptoms that arise by the second week of illness such as vomiting and diarrhea can contribute to severe dehydration in an infected individual. Mouth and throat ulcers make it difficult to maintain nutrition, further increasing the patient's chances of dehydration. The most serious complication of monkeypox is corneal infection. Eye infections can lead to scarring of the cornea and permanent vision loss. Sepsis and septic shock may also occur, and this is largely due to overly exaggerated immune responses. Although bronchopneumonia is a complication of monkeypox infection, this complication is more common in individuals who are co-infected with the influenza virus.
Fig.1 Categorization of nonspecific symptoms and complications of monkeypox. (Kaler, 2022)
Feature of Monkeypox
The hallmark feature of monkeypox is a disseminated vesiculopustular rash. The rash itself has been noted to go through several stages, and as they enter the peeling stage, the scab begins to fall off. It has been noted that these distinctive lesions often present first as enanthem, macular, papular, then vesicular, and pustular. These lesions will ultimately become crusted within two to three weeks. Before the rash appears on the skin, lesions appear on the tongue and mouth; These lesions are called enanthem. Once the scabby lesions have peeled off to reveal new skin underneath, the person is no longer considered infectious. This is called the desquamation stage.
Fig.2 Progression of monkeypox rash. (Walter, 2022)