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Camel Contagious Ecthyma (Ausdyk) Virus
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Pathology of Camel Contagious Ecthyma (CCE)
Fig.1 Contagious ecthyma lesions on the lips of a
CCEV causes disease in camels (Ausdyk) which is similar to contagious eczema in other ruminants and humans. CCE is a contagious skin disease affecting camels. Clinically, pimples first appear on the lips of affected animals, and in most cases the face is swollen and sometimes the neck is swollen. The swelling subsided and pustules developed on the lips, nose, face, eyes, and neck area, and cracked scabs formed within a few days. Notably, lesions sometimes appear on the face, eyes, and nostrils, and may extend to the gums, palate, and tongue. Most cases recover within 2 weeks, but severe cases may take 3 months. The morbidity rate was high, but few deaths were reported.
Epidemiology of CCE
In general, the disease is transmitted through direct interaction between infected and healthy camels. What's more, indirect contact with contaminated feed troughs, pastures, and skin abrasions also is an important route of transmission. According to reports, the disease is closely related to the change of seasons. In the Blue Nile and southern Butana regions, CCE occurs at certain times of the year almost every year, and results in a large loss of camel calves, placing a heavy burden on the economy. Additionally, the increased likelihood of CCE may relate to camel age, camel movement, and location.
CCE Detection and Treatment
Laboratory diagnosis of CCE is usually based on electron microscopy. Microscopic examination of affected skin in CCE revealed parakeratosis, ballooning degeneration of keratinocytes, swollen intracellular eosinophilic inclusions, inflammation, and edema. Moreover, mononuclear cell infiltration in pustular phase histology indicates the presence of a cellular immune response at the site of infection. Notably, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) has been recognized as a rapid and highly sensitive method for diagnosing CCE. Furthermore, the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) has been widely recognized in the diagnosis of other viral diseases due to its high sensitivity, strong specificity, good reproducibility, rapidity, and convenience, and has been proposed as a potential CCE detection technology.
Therapeutics of CCE
Many traditional methods are available for CCE treatment, such as cauterizing the regional lymph nodes and applying sesame oil. Infected camels were given supportive treatment, including antiseptic mouthwash and intramuscular broad-spectrum antibiotics to reduce the risk of secondary infection. In addition, giving antipyretics, antihistamines, and multivitamins are also helpful in reducing infections.
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Khalafalla, A. I.; et al. Phylogenetic analysis of eight sudanese camel contagious ecthyma viruses based on B2L gene sequence. Virology Journal. 2015, 12(1): 1-9.