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Overview of Penguinpox
Phylogenetic analysis of three genes of penguinpox virus (PEPV), a novel avipoxvirus isolated from African penguins, it demonstrates its relationship to other poxviruses. Based on this analysis, it was confirmed that PEPV belongs to the genus avianpoxvirus, specifically, clade A, subclade A2, and is most closely related to turkey pox virus (TKPV), ostrich pox virus (OSPV), and pigeon pox virus (PGPV).
On the basis of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses, there are currently 12 approved genus Avipoxvirus: juncopox virus, mynahpox virus, canarypox virus, flamingopox virus, fowlpox virus, pigeonpox virus, psittacinepox virus, quailpox virus, sparrowpox virus, starlingpox virus and turkeypox virus. Another two viruses, crowpox virus and peacockpox virus, are presumptive members of the genus avipoxvirus, but have not yet been approved as species by the ICTV.
Hot Topcis of Penguinpox Virus
PEPV cannot be successfully passaged in CEF, although CEF has been shown to support the replication of FWPV and CNPV viruses. PEPV transcriptase recognizes the vaccinia virus (VACV)-derived late promoter P11 linked to a β-galactosidase reporter gene, resulting in transient gene expression.
Preliminary work on penguin pox virus (PEPV) development as a vaccine vector. But no cells allowed PEPV to grow; therefore, the virus was grown and titrated on the chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) of 10-12 day old chick embryos.
A new poxvirus [penguin poxvirus (PPV)] was recently isolated from the jackass penguin Speniscus demercus, characterized by restriction analysis, and compared with other well-known avipoxvirus, including fowl pox (FPV), canary pox (CPV) and quail pox were compared viruses (Kow, 1992). The unique restriction patterns suggest that these poxviruses isolated from penguins represent a new species of avipoxvirus.
Visual Examples of Penguinpox Virus
Clinically, skin warty growths have been observed around the eyes of penguins, and nodular skin lesions have been observed on cockscombs, wattles, around the eyes, and other areas of unhaired skin.
Figure 1. Two Magellanic Penguin (Speniscus magellanicus) chicks with pox-like lesions. (Journal of wildlife diseases, 2012)
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Kane O J, Uhart M M, Rago V, et al. Avian pox in Magellanic penguins (Spheniscus magellanicus)[J]. Journal of wildlife diseases, 2012, 48(3): 790-794.