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Diagnosis of Monkeypox
The definitive diagnosis is key to keeping the natural disease under control or in the early detection of a potential bioterrorism event. Creative Biolabs, a leading biotechnology company in the world, has been focusing on the research of Monkeypox for more than 10 years. Our scientists have rich experience and professional knowledge, and a variety of diagnostic technology platforms can flexibly meet the needs of customers to test their research samples.
Overview of Monkeypox Diagnosis
The common difference in monkeypox is orthopoxviruses, which include smallpox and chickenpox. The pustular swab monkeypox virus (MPXV) was detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and confirmed by ELISA, immunofluorescence, and tissue culture. Immunohistochemical analysis, including the use of polyclonal or monoclonal antibodies against all orthopoxviruses, can distinguish herpes virus from poxvirus infection.
In the past, electron microscopy has often played an important role in virus diagnosis. If possible, electron microscopy can serve as a first-line method for laboratory diagnosis of poxvirus infection and may provide one of the first clues to the cause of an unknown rash. Characteristic poxvirus virions showing the typical morphology would be expected to be observed under electron microscopy.
Virus isolation (which can be accomplished by the culture of the virus in mammalian cell cultures) and identification by various PCR techniques, followed by restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis or amplicon sequencing, are generally considered decisive factors in MPXV identification.
Specimens for Laboratory Analyses
The best clinical specimens for laboratory analysis include specimens from skin lesions, such as swabs of blister lesions, exudates, or crusts, stored in dry, sterile test tubes (free of viral transport media) and refrigerated. Virus culture is performed using an oropharyngeal swab or nasopharyngeal swab. Skin biopsy is a good method of specimen collection. Monkeypox virus infection is best detected with serum collected for IgM at least 5 days after rash onset or IgG at least 8 days after rash onset. Laboratory confirmation can be achieved during disease activity by PCR analysis of vesicle fluid or scabs, while convalescent serum samples can be tested for anti-varicella virus IgM after the disease has subsided.
Diagnostic Assays for Monkeypox at Creative Biolabs
Although clinical features can help distinguish poxvirus infection from blistering rashes of other causes, laboratory confirmation is required to make a definitive diagnosis. Confirmatory techniques used to analyze specimens and determine monkeypox include genetic, phenotypic, and immunological methods. The various laboratory diagnostic assays for monkeypox include virus isolation and electron microscopy, PCR, IgM, and IgG ELISA, immunofluorescent antibody assay, and histopathologic analysis. The availability of various real-time PCR assays that use orthopoxvirus or MPXV-specific targets has increased in recent years. A DNA oligonucleotide microarray with the TNF receptor gene crmB has also been developed as another rapid method for species-specific detection of orthopoxviruses.