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Overview of Quailpox
Quailpox Virus (QPV) is a member of the poxviridae family and belongs to the genus avianpoxvirus. There are other nine well-known species in the poxviridae family, including: fowlpox virus, juncopox virus, mynahpox virus, psittacinepox virus, sparrowpox virus, starlingpox virus, pigeonpox virus, canarypox virus, and turkeypox virus.
Hot Topcis of Quailpox Virus
A quail pox vaccine (Bio-Pox QTM) containing a live cell culture-adapted quail virus is marketed as a pox vaccine for chickens and turkeys. According to the manufacturer, the vaccine is non-toxic to chickens and turkeys and provides excellent protection against field strains of fowlpox virus.
Quails, chickens, and turkeys vaccinated with pigeonpox virus and fowlpox virus did not protect them from immune challenge with quailpox virus, and they developed severe pox skin lesions. When quail and chickens were vaccinated with quailpox virus and given pigeonpox and fowlpox challenge virus, there was no protection. Therefore, quailpox virus is not immunologically related to pigeonpox and fowlpox virus. The psittacosis virus, which is used as a vaccine in quail and chickens, also failed to prevent quailpox virus challenge.
The genomes of fowlpox and quailpox virus isolates were compared by restriction endonuclease analysis using BamHI, EcoRI, and HindIII endonucleases. The results show that quailpox virus is a unique species of Avianpoxvirus on the basis of genetic and immunological analysis.
Visual Examples of Quailpox Virus
The diseased quail has rough feathers, sluggishness, drooping wings, shrunken head and sluggishness, living alone, and is slow to respond to the outside world. Loss of appetite, pulling gray-white or gray-green loose stools, difficulty breathing, and individual breathing with open mouth. Grayish-white nodules and slightly larger yellowish-brown nodules appear on the hairless parts of the head, such as the eyelids and the corners of the mouth. Some nodules merge to form large dry brown nodules that protrude from the skin surface. Cut the nodule with a knife to squeeze out a cheese-like substance. Some nodules are crusted, and if the cover is peeled off, the bloody lesions can be exposed. Some scabs fall off on their own, leaving smooth gray-white scars.
Avipoxvirus infection is rare in quail, but the disease has been reported in various quail species in some countries.
Figure 1. Typical pox lesions characterized by red-brown wart-like masses on snood and comb of a quail. Note obstruction of vision caused by a complicated eye lesion with caseous material.(Turkish Journal of Veterinary & Animal Sciences, 2005)
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Gülbahar M Y, Çabalar M, Boynukara B. Avipoxvirus infection in quails[J]. Turkish Journal of Veterinary & Animal Sciences, 2005, 29(2): 449-454.