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Ectromelia virus (ECTV) is a member of the genus Orthopoxvirus and family Poxviridae that infects mice and causes the illness known as mousepox. Although it has only been observed in mouse colonies maintained for research, it is thought that ECTV infects wild populations of mice and other rodents in Europe. Skin sores, a purulent rash on the mice's bodies, and a widespread illness are all symptoms of mousepox and can be fatal. It is the only poxvirus can infect mice in a natural way.
Background of Ectromelia Virus
A large double-stranded DNA virus called ectromelia virus (ECTV) is a member of the family Poxviridae's Orthopoxvirus genus. It is the primary cause of mousepox, a deadly, acute toxic disease that kills a significant portion of laboratory mice. When mice were originally utilized as animal models in 1930, this phenomenon was first recognized. Four ECTV strains have whole genome sequences deposited in GenBank.
Symptoms of Ectromelia
Ectromelia can be subacute, acute, or latent. Animals having the virus in a latent form do not exhibit any symptoms of illness. In this situation, a number of conditions, including irradiation, transportation, infection with other pathogens, and experimental load, can activate the infection. In a fulminant type, mice die suddenly and quickly without having opportunity to develop clinical signs. The subacute form of ectromelia is the classic variety; in such circumstances, skin lesions primarily appear on the head, tail, and legs of affected animals. The skin is edematous, hyperemic, and has tiny, crust-covered localized hemorrhages. Then, foci of necrosis with dark brown crusts are produced on the fingers, ears, and tail before going away. The name 'ectromelia' was given to this virus because it can occasionally result in the amputation of limbs or phalanges of the fingers and tail.
Epidemiology of Ectromelia
When the mouse was initially used as a test subject in a laboratory experiment in 1930, infectious ectromelia (ECTV) was discovered. It is thought that ECTV naturally infects wild rodent populations in Europe, and under experimental circumstances, the virus is easily transmissible between wild and laboratory populations. Mice that make it through the acute stage of the illness develop a smallpox-like exanthematous rash known as mousepox. In Europe, Japan, China, and the US, ECTV infects mouse colonies and causes an acute epizootic illness. Similar to human diseases caused by the Variola virus (VARV), ECTV only infects specific mouse species.