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Anti-monkeypox Drug Discovery Services Targeting Interferon (IFN)
In the absence of vaccination, antiviral therapy is beneficial for monkeypox patients to treat and control the spread of infection. Creative Biolabs has been specializing in monkeypox research for over 10 years and our expertise is accomplished by a team of strategic and technical advisers who are among the most renowned experts in their respective fields.
Introduction of Interferon (IFN)
IFNs are glycoproteins with strong antiviral activity, which is the first line of host immune response against invading pathogens. These proteins are divided into three types, type I, II, and III IFNs, based on the structure of the receptors on the cell surface. IFN signaling pathway is an innate immune response mechanism that is the body's first line of defense against virus invasion. IFN production and signaling play an antiviral role in vertebrates.
IFN Signaling Pathway Research at Creative Biolabs
Cells infected with the virus trigger an inflammatory process that secretes interferons in other molecules such as prostaglandins and interleukins. IFNs were firstly described as proteins secreted by virus-infected cells that can protect other cells from a viral infection because interferons stimulate the production of antiviral proteins in non-infected cells that inhibit the replication of different types of viruses. IFNs induced by the interferon-stimulated gene in host cells (e.g., Protein kinase R, oligoadenylate synthetase, and RNase L) expression, for a variety of DNA and RNA virus has broad-spectrum antiviral activity. These interferon-stimulated by suppressing the virus in the lifecycle of multiple steps inhibit viral replication, including the virus RNA transcription and protein translation.
Fig.1 Activation of the interferon pathway can potently restrict and clear the virus. (Ahmad, 2020)
Based on preclinical studies of broad-spectrum viral replication inhibition, IFNs as antivirals have been preliminarily studied for their activity against RNA and DNA viruses. Examples of potential or developing drugs targeted at different steps in the pathway are presented. IFNs usually enhance immune function rather than suppress it. Currently, many drugs are being or have been designed to target different components of the IFN system for different therapeutic indications.
Fig.2 Potential drug targets in the IFN system. (Borden, 2007)
Anti-Monkeypox Drug Discovery Services Targeting IFN at Creative Biolabs
Several antiviral drugs may be effective in treating monkeypox infection. IFN was originally described as a product of chicken embryonic cells infected with influenza viruses and was able to induce resistance to infection with homologous or heterologous viruses. IFNs provide fundamental cellular defense mechanisms against viral infections and are thus critically important to the health of animals and humans. As part of the innate immune response, IFNs are a principal cytokine that blocks viral replication through the action of specific ISGs. A classic example is IFN, which enhances the immune response and elicits an antiviral state. IFN is clinically approved for HCV and HBV infections. The development of host-targeted antivirals lags behind that of direct-acting antivirals, and only a few drugs (such as IFN) have been approved for clinical use.
Creative Biolabs is an innovative and experienced anti-Monkeypox drug discovery solutions provider. An in-depth understanding of drug targets is essential for drug development. If you are interested in our drug discovery services or research products, please feel free to contact us for more.
Ahmad, I.; et al. Viral microRNAs: interfering the interferon signaling. Current pharmaceutical design. 2020, 26(4): 446-454.
Borden, E.C.; et al. Interferons at age 50: past, current and future impact on biomedicine. Nature reviews Drug discovery. 2007, 6(12): 975-990.