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Orf Virus (Sore Mouth Infection)
Creative Biolabs is a world-leading biotechnology company that has been at the forefront of Orf virus (ORFV) product and drug development for decades. We specialize in providing customized development services based on your specific needs.
Introduction to ORFV
ORFV, a typical member of the Poxviridae family, is a large oval double-stranded DNA virus. The ORFV genome is approximately 140 kb and contains 132 genes. ORFVs include highly variable terminal regions and relatively conserved central regions. Terminal regions are involved in virulence, pathogenesis, and immune evasion. The central region, with high GC content, plays a crucial role in viral replication and viral morphogenesis. ORFV strains have extensive heterogeneity. Different strains exhibit different restriction fragment profiles. ORFV is the causative agent of contagious eczema (Orf). Orf is a global infection that mainly affects sheep and goats and causes non-systemic skin and debilitating disease. The disease is usually benign, but in young animals, it is persistent, even fatal. It is also a zoonotic disease that mainly affects people who have contact with infected animals. Infected people are characterized by the formation of erythematous papules on the fingers, palms, knuckles, face, and lips, along with fever or swollen lymph nodes. The Orf hinders livestock production, which could have far-reaching effects on the economy.
ORFV and Immunity
The association of ORFV with the immune system has attracted increasing attention in recent years. An important feature of ORFV is that it can repeatedly infect the host, and reinfection usually results in a shorter resolution time. During the interaction with the host, ORFV has evolved an immune evasion strategy by developing virulence factors. Evidence indicates that ORFV encodes a series of molecules that play an important role in immune evasion by stimulating anti-inflammatory proteins. Notably, ORFV can inhibit interferon (IFN) stimulated genes (ISG) expression and modulate Janus kinase (JAK)/signal transducers and activators of transcription (STAT) signaling to avoid immune clearance. Furthermore, ORFV plays a critical role in immune escape by inducing or inhibiting apoptotic pathways.
Fig.1 Schematic mechanism model of immune modulation mediated by inactivated ORFV. (Wang, 2019)
Potential Therapeutics of ORFV
ORFV has great potential in the prevention and treatment of various diseases as an immunomodulatory drug.
In several animal models of viral infection, inactivated ORFV has shown potent immunomodulatory capacity by inducing IFN-γ. Notably, ORFV particles can be used as nanoscale drugs to treat different diseases, and ORFV-based drugs have also been developed for various infectious animal diseases.
Studies have shown that ORFV can induce anti-tumor immune responses. Importantly, ORFV can efficiently infect and kill tumor cells, which makes ORFV a promising oncolytic virus. The susceptibility of tumor cells to the virus is promoted by modifying the viral capsid structure. In addition, modifying the viral genome facilitates the virus to carry foreign molecules into tumor cells and kill tumor cells.
The unique immune escape mechanism of ORFV makes this virus a key factor in vaccine development in the veterinary field. A better understanding of the genomic structure of ORFV, the molecular mechanisms of immune responses, and replication properties in different animals will facilitate the development of recombinant vaccine vectors.
After decades of accumulation, Creative Biolabs has established an advanced platform and a professional team. Our vision is to provide reasonable solutions and one-stop services to help customers all over the world develop virus-related products and drugs. Please feel free to contact us for more details.
Wang, R.; et al. Orf virus: A promising new therapeutic agent. Reviews in Medical Virology. 2019, 29(1): e2013.