We DO NOT PROVIDE ANY PRODUCTS OR SERVICES DIRECTLY TO PATIENTS. All of our products are for Research Use Only (RUO), NOT intended for diagnostic, therapeutic, or clinical use.
Parapoxvirus of Reindeer Virus
As an innovative bio-company with a good reputation, Creative Biolabs focuses on providing cutting-edge scientific tools and cost-effective services for drug and product development related to parapoxvirus (PPV) of reindeer virus. Our goal is to help our clients achieve outstanding breakthroughs in viral research.
Background of PPV of Reindeer Virus
Fig.1 Lesions at the muco-cutaneous
junction of the lip. (Özmen, 2018)
A contagious disease has been found in Finnish reindeer that causes erosions, pimples, and ulcers in the mouth several decades ago. Evidence showed that the disease was closely related to PPV. PPVs, members of the Poxviridae family, are highly contagious and spread through direct animal-to-animal contact or indirectly through environmental contamination. PPV is the most common in sheep, goats, and cattle, but also occurs in reindeer and wild animals. PPVs contain many viruses, such as Bovine popular stomatitis virus (BPSV), Orf virus (ORFV), Pseudocowpox virus (PCPV), and Squirrel parapox virus (SPPV), as well as three tentative species: sealpox virus, chamois contagious ecthyma virus, and auzdyk disease virus.
PPVs in Reindeer
Contagious ecthyma (Orf) is a skin disease worldwide that is caused by ORFV. ORFV is a species that causes lesions around the lips, nostrils, oral mucosa, and nipples in a variety of animals, such as goats and cattle. The etiology of reindeer disease is unknown, but based on clinical symptoms and pathology, ORFV plays a crucial role in the outbreak of reindeer eczema. Notably, evidence indicates that recent outbreaks of reindeer PPV strains are grouped with PCPV. To characterize these reindeer clinical samples in more detail, electron microscopy and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) were commonly used for sample sequencing and analysis. Using PCR to amplify specific regions of the viral genome from clinical specimens and perform a phylogenetic analysis of the resulting PCR products to determine the most likely cause of disease.
PPVs Transmission and Prevention
Research demonstrated that ORFV crosses host species barriers from sheep and goats to reindeer. PPV, which causes contagious eczema in Norwegian semi-domesticated reindeer, is closely associated with shared pastures. Moreover, sharing fences, transport vehicles, and other equipments are also important approaches to lead to infection. Therefore, it is necessary to prevent reindeer from sharing equipment and facilities with sheep and goats to prevent cross-contamination. In addition, changes in reindeer herding conditions, such as increased densities, faster movement of animals using helicopters and snowmobiles, and increased transport distances to slaughterhouses, also contribute to increased risks of reindeer disease.
With advanced platforms and professional scientists, Creative Biolabs has been committed to providing a one-stop service for PPV of reindeer virus related drug and product development. We are confident in providing customized solutions according to the specific needs of our customers. If you are interested in this field, please contact us in time for more information and a detailed quotation.
Özmen, Ö.; Hüseyin, D. O. L. U. Pathological and electron microscopical observations on naturally occurring contagious ecthyma outbreak in two wild goats (Capra aegagrus aegragus). Ankara Üniversitesi Veteriner Fakültesi Dergisi. 2018, 65(4): 419-423.