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How is Monkeypox Transmitted

Creative Biolabs is an innovative and experienced supplier of monkeypox virus-related products and solutions. We leverage our most advanced R&D and manufacturing expertise to help our customers develop outstanding products.

About the Monkeypox

Monkeypox is caused by the monkeypox virus (MPXV), a member of the orthopoxvirus genus in the Poxviridae family. This genus includes three other human pathogens: variola virus (causing smallpox), cowpox virus, and vaccinia virus. Fever, muscle aches, headache, swollen lymph nodes, back pain, chills, and tiredness are some of the symptoms of some individuals who may be infected with monkeypox.

Animal Host-range of Monkeypox Virus

Monkeypox is considered to be the most important orthopoxvirus infection in humans. Host ranges of orthopoxviruses can be highly specialized, host-limited, or generalists with a wide host range. MPXV has a broad host range that has allowed it to maintain a reservoir in wildlife while sporadically causing disease in humans, which has prevented global eradication by vaccinating humans. The virus has been isolated from different wild animals including non-human primates and a variety of rodents.

Transmission of Monkeypox

Monkeypox transmission to humans is associated with particular environmental conditions, so environmental changes could alter the locations of areas suitable for transmission, and new cases of the disease may appear in areas where it has not occurred before; other areas previously suitable for transmission may see transmission reduced. Monkeypox is a severe viral zoonotic disease (i.e., animal-to-human infection) that occurs sporadically, primarily in rural areas in Central and Western Africa, near tropical rain forests. Monkeypox virus is believed to spread in several ways, all of which involve direct contact with infected animals or infected people.

  • Transmission through direct contact with lesions or bodily fluids of animals. Bronchial epithelial cells macrophages and fibroblasts contain a large number of viral antigens. Virus isolation and electron microscopy showed active virus replication in the lungs and tongue. These findings suggest that respiratory tract and direct mucosa-skin contact may be important pathways for monkeypox virus transmission between rodents and humans. Animal-to-human transmission is through direct contact or contact with infected animals, most commonly due to bodily fluids such as saliva, respiratory secretions, or exudates that may be skin or mucosal lesions. Fecal-borne viruses may be another source of exposure.
  • Monkeypox is also spread from person to person, most likely through respiratory droplets during direct and prolonged face-to-face contact. It can also be spread through direct contact with the body fluids of an infected person or objects contaminated with the virus, such as sheets, bedding, or clothing.

Suspected modes of transmission of monkeypox to humans. Fig.1 Suspected modes of transmission of monkeypox to humans. (Kaler, 2022)

Creative Biolabs is a world-leading monkeypox CRO company in the United States and has been at the forefront of monkeypox virus research for more than 10 years. Our expert team provides the right support and expertise at every different stage of project development. If you are interested in our monkeypox virus-related products or anti-monkeypox drug discovery solutions, please feel free to contact us for more.


  1. Kaler, J.; et al. Monkeypox: A Comprehensive Review of Transmission, Pathogenesis, and Manifestation. Cureus. 2022, 14(7).
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We DO NOT PROVIDE ANY PRODUCTS OR SERVICES DIRECTLY TO PATIENTS. All of our products are for Research Use Only (RUO), NOT intended for diagnostic, therapeutic, or clinical use.