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Camelpox is an economically important, contagious, often sporadic skin disease of camelids. The Camelpox virus (CMLV), which causes the disease, is closely linked to the Variola virus (VARV), which causes smallpox. Camelpox is confined to camel-rearing belts, primarily in developing nations, and has a negative economic impact due to significant illness, death, weight loss, and milk yield reductions.
Background of Camelpox Virus
The camelpox virus (CMLV), which causes the disease, is a member of the family Poxviridae's subfamily Chordopoxvirinae and the genus Orthopoxvirus (OPV). There are a number of pathogens with veterinary and zoonotic significance among the other members of the genus. The CMLV genome is made up of a single linear, double-stranded DNA molecule that replicates in the cytoplasm and is ended by a hairpin loop. The genome has cross-links that connect the two DNA strands at both ends and is AT-rich (66.9%). Long inverted tandem repetitions at each end of the DNA strand create single-stranded loops. Genes included in the genome's core region are highly conserved across all sequenced OPVs. CMLV virion dimensions are typically 224 × 389 nm. Similar to OPVs, the camelpox virion is made up of a core, two lateral bodies, an envelope, and an outer membrane.
Symptoms of Camelpox
The CMLV typically enters through the skin. The virus travels to nearby lymph nodes and causes the development of a primary cutaneous lesion after local replication, which is followed by a leukocyte-associated viremia. A few days following the start of viremia, widespread secondary skin lesions start to develop. New lesions continue to develop for another two to three days, after which the viremia starts to decline. Rarely has CMLV affected a man's health. When administered intradermally, the virus has also been discovered to be non-pathogenic to mice, rats, guinea pigs, lambs, goats, rabbits, and other animals. Cattle, sheep, and goats are not among the other animal species that the CMLV can infect since it is host-specific.
Epidemiology of Camelpox
One of the most prevalent OPV illnesses affecting camelids is camelpox. Since camels are utilized for transportation, racing, and the production of milk, wool, and meat, the disease affects all camel-breeding regions in Africa, the northern hemisphere, the Middle East, and Asia. In the semi-desert regions, infections are frequently found in the herds of the nomadic pastoralists. Initial reports of the illness came from Punjab and Rajaputana (India), and later reports came from numerous other nations. The disease is prevalent throughout the world, including the Middle East, Asia, Africa and the southern regions of former USSR.