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Parapoxvirus of Red Deer
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History of Parapoxvirus of PVNZ
PVNZ is a member of the Parapoxviruses (PPVs). PVNZ has been reported in deer in New Zealand and wild ruminants in Italy, which was first identified in lesions on the epithelial surface of red deer skin and velvet. PVNZ virions were isolated from diseased material and DNA was extracted for preliminary restriction endonuclease analysis. The results showed that it was significantly different from each of the established PPVs and was identified as a new member of the genus. The established Parapoxvirus species are bovine papular stomatitis virus (BPSV), Orf virus (ORFV), Pseudocowpox virus (PCPV), and PVNZ.
Fig.1 Phylogenetic analysis and genome comparison among different species of PPVs. (Yao, 2020)
PVNZ Structure and Related Diseases
PVNZ has a linear double-stranded DNA genome. The PVNZ genome is approximately 140 kb with high GC content. Linear genomes are flanked by inverted terminal repeat (ITR) sequences that are covalently closed at their ends. PVNZ causes scabies on the face, lips, ears, and velvet of deer. Animals under the age of two are more susceptible than older deer. In general, PVNZ infections heal within two to three weeks. Notably, RDPV can infect ungulates as well as humans and can be transmitted sexually and non-sexually.
BPSV, ORFV, and PCPV in PPVs have all been shown to encode homologs of VEGF. There is evidence that PVNZ strain RD86 also encodes VEGF. Analysis of purified PVNZ VEGF revealed that it has a unique VEGF receptor binding profile to other PPV VEGFs, as it binds VEGFR-2 and induces VEGFR-2-mediated proliferation of Ba/F3-derived cells.
PVNZ and immunity
Chemokines play a crucial role in directing cellular trafficking to the sites of inflammation. A set of genes encoding three unique chemokine binding proteins (CBPs), ORF112.0, ORF112.3, and ORF112.6, were identified in PVNZ. Differences in specificity and binding affinities have been exhibited in PVNZ-CBPs. Notably, the results of many studies indicate that PVNZ-CBPs are closely related to suppressing inflammation and antiviral immune responses.
Fig.2 Structure of ORFV and PVNZ CBPs homology models. (Sharif, 2019)
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Yao, X.; et al. Genomic features and evolution of the Parapoxvirus during the past two decades. Pathogens. 2020, 9(11): 888.
Sharif, S.; et al. Chemokine-binding proteins encoded by Parapoxvirus of red deer of New Zealand display evidence of gene duplication and divergence of ligand specificity. Frontiers in microbiology. 2019, 10: 1421.